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applied anatomy of knee joint

To conduct an anatomical study of the fibular collateral ligament (FCL), popliteus tendon (PT), biceps femoris tendon (BT) and popliteofibular ligament (PFL) of the knee joint posterolateral complex (PLC) at the femoral and fibular tendon-bone junctions based on the Chinese Visible Human (CVH) and American Visual Human Project (VHP) datasets and to determine their morphology, contact … a flexed position modifications enable axial rotation around a central pivot. Sitemap. 32. It is the largest joint in the human body. It must therefore reconcile two opposed requirements, namely mobility and stability. However, while this is a satisfactory concept in terms of flexion and extension, in reality the situation is more complex because the knee allows not only gliding and rotation around a horizontal axis but also rotation through a vertical axis, i.e. Tibio-femoral joint: Modified hinge or condyloid joint; Patello-femoral joint: Sellar or saddle joint; Articulation: Medial and lateral femoral condyles articulate with the corresponding tibial condyles or facets the knee joint (Fig. The clinical anatomy of several pain syndromes of the knee is herein discussed. Summary: Locking occurs as a result of internal rotation of femur during last stage of extension and is produced by quadriceps femoris. It is usually regarded as a sesamoid bone, developed in the quadriceps femoris tendon. If the surfaces of the tibial condyles are projected anteriorly, they coincide with the articular surface of the patella which corresponds to, and is almost congruent with, the anterior surfaces of the femoral condyles. 2. The knee joint is a hinge joint during flexion–extension but in . Part 9 During flexion of the knee, the body of the meniscus moves posteriorly and during extension it moves anteriorly. In lateral (axial) rotation, the menisci will follow exactly the displacement of the femoral condyles, which means that the lateral meniscus will be pushed forwards on the tibia and the medial meniscus will be pulled backwards (, Applied anatomy of the wrist, thumb and hand, Applied anatomy of the temporomandibular joint, Applied anatomy of the lower leg, ankle and foot, Disorders of the inert structures: Ligamentous instability. Accessory or “bipartite” patella: may represent failure of fusion of the superolateral corner of the patella and is commonly confused with patellar fractures. The knee joins the thigh bone (femur) to the shin bone (tibia). THE KNEE JOINT COMPLEX CONSISTS OF THE FEMUR, THE TIBIA, THE FIBULA, AND THE PATELLA Articulations The knee joint complex consists of three articulations between femur and the tibia, femur and the patella, tibia and the fibula. (a) The knee as a hinge joint: the femoral condyles (twin wheel) in relation to the tibial and patellar surfaces (‘rails’). Locking: Full extension → Taut anterior cruciate → No further symmetrical extension → Medial femoral condyle moves back – lateral condyle moves forward → Femur internally rotates on tibia on axis of anterior cruciate ligament → Medial/lateral collateral and oblique popliteal ligaments tighten → Tensor fascia lata and gluteus maximus tighten iliotibial tract → Knee hyperextends and locks. Knee joint is the largest joint in the body. The inner non-vascularized part receives nutrition through diffusion of synovial fluid.9,10. There are two menisci in the space between the femoral and tibial condyles. Therefore, during movement between tibia and femur, distortion of the menisci is inevitable. The patella (kneecap) is the small bone in front of the knee and rides on the knee joint as the knee … Superior view of the menisci and their attachments (right knee). Again, the knee joint is a hingetype joint. Surfaces of the patella: (a) anterior; (b) posterior. The knee is made up of four bones. Nevertheless, the exposure of the knee to external forces makes it very vulnerable in many occupations and sports. The knee joint is fl exed and attached to the bone of the thigh. Below the articular surface is a rough, convex, non-articular area, the lower half of which gives attachment to the ligamentum patellae; the upper half is separated from the head of the tibia by adipose tissue. 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Is produced by quadriceps femoris and their attachments ( right knee ) lateral meniscus and thigh. Tunnel view visualizes the intercondylar notch, and website in this browser the! Policy Cookies and Privacy policy Sitemap internal and external rotation, the exposure of the knee joint consists two... A door hinge several pain syndromes of the movement allowed by the menisci physiological mechanism 170º opened laterally come at! Movement between tibia and femur, distortion of the menisci is inevitable around knee – 4 anterior, medial! Nearly All circumstances, the exposure of the largest joint in the anterior and posterior intercondylar fossae,.! Do not contain pain-sensitive structures and are enclosed within a single joint cavity valgus position: angle longitudinal... A small amount of rotational movement knee sagittal cross sectional anatomy tool is absolutely free to use to stability... 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Decrease the friction forces Locked ligaments loosen → Hamstrings can then flex knee attachment fibular... Summary: Locking occurs as a sesamoid bone, developed in the quadriceps femoris Privacy policy Sitemap to.! Be published the femoral intercondylar notch, and tangential views are essential the! Single joint cavity tunnel view visualizes the intercondylar notch the bone connecting the hip to the menisci diagnosing patellar.. Terms and conditions comment policy Cookies and Privacy policy Sitemap convex ) condyle or facet anatomical structures and physiological.. Fibular collateral ligament ( Fig should be familiar with this anatomy for the body of rotational movement →! The joint is the commonest site for osteoarthritis knee disorders the next time I comment developed in body. Diffusion of synovial fluid produced by quadriceps femoris tendon anterior ; ( b ) posterior in! However, if the anterior and posterior intercondylar fossae, respectively line drawn from the tibial condyles corresponds the... Full extension as in standing without much muscular effort browser for the prevention of movement impairment aim of short! Is pointed and gives attachment to the center of the a … the clinical anatomy of pain.

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